The Quartodeciman controversies of the second century reflect complexities that should inform and temper iterations of the so-called “Bauer thesis.” The core issue concerned the ecclesiastical celebration of the Christian Pascha (Easter), as the Quartodecimans tied their liturgical calendar to the Jewish 14th of Nisan. Walter Bauer’s monumental and highly influential Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum (1934) did not devote an extended discussion to the Quartodeciman ruptures. Instead, scattered passages made passing references to Quartodecimanism. Bauer’s focus was upon the authoritarian role of the Roman church in the disputes, and he particularly underscored the heavy-handed and ostensibly “violent” approach of Victor of Rome. Yet Bauer’s facile review of Quartodecimanism overplayed the inter-regional nature of the conflict (Rome vs. Asia Minor), ignored the intra-local tensions (within Laodicea and probably Rome itself), overlooked the diversity of practices within Quartodecimanism, exaggerated the “heavy-handed” approach of Victor, and neglected the church councils outside of Rome that addressed the issue prior to Victor. What emerges from this study is a nuanced understanding of the complexities associated with “orthodoxy,” “heresy,” unity, and diversity in the second century. While Bauer’s geographical approach yields valuable insights, his general conclusions do not mirror the complexities of diversity in early Christianity.