The Lord promised that he would make Abraham into a “great nation” in Genesis 12:1–3. Embedded in this one promise is much more than an earthly blessing. From the moment of its historical-redemptive inception, its promise became the driving force not only for the early history of Israel in the Pentateuch, but also for the entirety of the Israelite nation in the Old Testament Scriptures, and even the history of redemption. The purpose of this presentation is to argue for this claim. The way in which I plan to make this case is the begin by presenting an exegetical defense of the central focus of the “great nation” promise in light of the academic discussions surrounding it. After establishing this, I will further describe the way in which the history of Israel refers back to this promise at multiple points. This will reveal that this one “great nation” promise can be parsed out into four component parts: 1) people to comprise its citizenry; 2) a homeland for the people to live; 3) a constitution for the sake of order and governance; 4) leadership in the form of a monarch. The fulfillment of this promise also as a level of complexity as there are two stages: there is a typological stage that comes to fruition within the Old Testament era. This first stage points to a final, eschatological stage of fulfillment both in Christ and in believers through our union with Christ.