Christ is God over All: Romans 9:5 in the Context of Romans 9-11

Bibliographic information:

Carraway, George. Christ is God over All: Romans 9:5 in the Context of Romans 9-11. Library of New Testament Studies. London and New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2013.



This book is written against the background of Christian scholarly thought since the publication of Kyrios Christos by Wilhelm Bousset. The argument of the book is that the syntax of Romans 9:5 suggests Paul meant to refer to Jesus as God, and that his statement is not out of place at the beginning of Romans 9-11. The book addresses objections to that conclusion, including a response to those who claim that a monotheist such as Paul would not refer to Jesus as God. There is also a response to the claim that Paul does not elsewhere refer to Jesus as God. The book also contains an analysis of the connection between Romans 9:5 and the remainder of Romans 9-11, including a connection between Romans 3 to Romans 10:5-13 and the characterization of Jesus as the one Lord of all. The book finally argues that the redeemer from Zion in 11:25-27 is the same as the Christ in Romans 9:5.


Bloomsbury T&t Clark (website:

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