The Predictive Nature of Typology in John 12:37-43

Bibliographic information:

Scacewater, Todd A. “The Predictive Nature of Typology in John 12:37-43,” Westminster Theological Journal 75.1 (2013), 129-43.



The purpose of this article is to argue from John 12:37-43 that John understood typology as predictive prophecy. John here is providing a rationale for the mass Jewish rejection of Jesus, perhaps with evangelistic motives. His argument is threefold: (1) the Scripture necessitated the rejection of Jesus because of the established typological pattern of prophetic rejection; (2) God’s ensuring this rejection is righteous because of Israel’s consistent obduracy; (3) Isaiah prophesied that the Servant (who is Jesus) would be the intended antitype of this typological pattern. John’s treatment of typology in this passage is similar to his treatment of typology throughout the Gospel. He does not seem to distinguish clearly between direct, verbal prophecy and indirect, typological prophecy. Rather, John understands typology to be a type of predictive prophecy.


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