The Extraordinary Sons of Lamech: The Genealogy of Cain and a Theology of Human Progress

Genesis 4:20–22 records the genealogy of Lamech’s three entrepreneurial sons. Like their forefather Cain, who founded the first city, Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal-Cain are inventors. Their innovations in the areas of agriculture, music, and metallurgy mark significant accomplishments for human culture. The text conditions the theological significance of Lamech’s industrious progeny by presenting their accomplishments … Read more

Re-examining the account between David and Bathsheba in 2 Samuel 11:1-5

2 Samuel 11:1-5 provides an account of David’s sexual encounter with Bathsheba. The text records that the event occurred during the war, but David remained at his Jerusalem home. One evening, David sees Bathsheba from his balcony, asks about her identity, and discovers that she is Uriah’s wife. He has her brought to him and … Read more

The Movement of the proto-Masoretic Text during the Second Temple Period

The discipline of Old Testament textual criticism is foundational to biblical studies. To quote a famous book title, “Is There a Meaning in the Text?” presupposes a text to study and interpret. For western Bible scholars and Christians, that text is almost always the Masoretic Text. Despite this reliance on the Masoretic Text, there is … Read more

The Valley of Achor, A Door of Hope: Joshua 6:15-8:2 Reconsidered

When Bible readers come to the book of Joshua in the Old Testament they find Israel’s newest military leader, Joshua, the son of Nun, is set to replace the greatest prophet in Israel’s history, Moses. He is to lead the battered and weak wilderness-wandering Israelites triumphantly against the Canaanites within the land promised to their … Read more